Posthumanist Approach to Technology Tools

Bray, N. (2013). Writing with Scrivener: A hopeful tale of disappearing tools, flatulence, and word processing redemption. Computers and Composition, 30(3), 197-210. doi:10.1016/j.compcom.2013.07.002


In this article, Nancy Bray (2013) shares her struggle to match her own composing practices with the right technology tool — and in the process recommends a posthumanist approach to writing tools that blurs “the boundaries between machine and human” (p. 199). I seek to apply her conclusions about selecting and studying composing technologies as a posthumanist approach to adopting iPads in a WI class.


Bray narrates her rationale for choosing Scrivener as her composing technology of choice as she realized that Microsoft Word did not adequately meet her needs. Underlying the narrative is this critique of our discipline: although writing relies on technology, “writing technology is rarely discussed in our composition classrooms, despite repeated appeals from many technology and composition experts” (p. 198). Bray suggests our lack of interest relates to “deeply ingrained prejudices in the humanities” (p. 199) based on a binary view that pits technological machine against human being. Bray’s preferred attitude toward technology calls “for a posthumanist approach in which the boundaries between machine and human are blurred” (p. 199).

Scrivener logo

Scrivener Logo. From Literature & Latte’s Scrivener page.

Bray relates that her “highly recursive, nonlinear composition, and revision style” simply did not work well in Microsoft Word, although, ironically, research suggests that style could be the result of learning to write with a word processor (p. 199). After working uncomfortably in composing tools like wikis, which limit the writer’s view and access to a small section of a text, Bray realized she preferred composing with text sense, a vision and understanding of the project as a whole. Because “a lack of text sense is one of the key differences between on-screen and paper text” (p. 203), she started seeking a writing tool that more closely matched her composing style, that afforded writing at the micro level and reviewing at the macro level. She chose Scrivener.


What I find applicable in Bray’s narrative is that technology is the subject, whether composing tool or mobile tablet device. In moving past a humanist approach to technology as mysterious and rigid, Bray recommends that “instead of asking how using technology likes Microsoft Office or Scrivener make us better writers, we should ask instead how they shape our writing experience and how we, in turn, can shape these tools” (p. 206). It is in studying and shaping technology tools that a posthumanist approach like Bray promotes can apply to classroom adoption of iPads. We can encourage metacognitive analysis of technologies as they to match (or don’t match) students’ learning and invention strategies. As Bray put it, we should encourage our students (and ourselves) to “try on many writing tools and to explore technology” (p. 206).


Bray nears her conclusion by articulating this hope, which I reiterate as my recommendation for colleagues: “By focusing on our writing tools in ways that acknowledges [sic] the interconnected nature of the writer, the writer’s individual writing processes, our software, and our computers, we can perhaps begin to chip away at our distrustful humanist assumptions about technology” (p. 207).

3 thoughts on “Posthumanist Approach to Technology Tools

  1. I was unable to locate a link to contacting Nancy Bray.

    There is a community with over 2500 members for Scrivener Users. Visitors do not need a G+ account. A visitor may read the community posts before deciding whether to participate. Community membership does require a G+ account.

    If you have contact information for her and would not mind passing this information along, that would be appreciated.

    • I don’t have contact information for Nancy Bray, either, but I appreciate you sharing this community resource. I visited it and found it quite helpful. I, too, am a Scrivener user, having adopted Scrivener for my doctoral work in English. I use it more for invention and notetaking than composing at this point, but my purpose in adopting Scrivener has always been to collect everything I write – class notes, reading notes, blog posts, formal assignments, freewrites, annotations – in a single application. When the time comes to start writing my comps and dissertation, I fully expect Scrivener to become a major aspect of my distributed memory.

  2. Oh –the name of your article alone drew me in. As we’ve discussed, this is the uber-struggle of every researcher…what and where is the right tool that will accomplish all of the tasks and holistically solve my research/class organization, annotating, writing, filing and overall research woes?

    To think of it as a post-humanist “prejudice in the humanities” – hmmm…I have to say I hadn’t gone there. Thinking about how to shape the technology and as you move the discussion to ipads in the classroom, makes me wonder how much exploration can/should be built-in to the process of learning? I do like your final suggestion – and agree that humanists, probably more than other fields, often seem to have an inherent distrust or lack of interest in technological tools – even though they are improving to the point where I recently “think” I found my solution – not in Scrivener, but in Endnote.

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